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When Do I Sign Up for Medicare?

Understanding Your Enrollment Periods

Enrolling in Medicare is a critical step as you approach 65, marking a significant milestone in managing your healthcare. Understanding when to sign up for Medicare is essential to ensure you receive your benefits when you need them.  To streamline the process, Medicare has designated specific enrollment periods.  Each period works with a variety of circumstances surrounding when you can start or adjust your coverage.

Initial Enrollment Period

The Initial Enrollment Period (IEP) is your primary opportunity to sign up for Medicare.  For most people, this starts three months before your 65th birthday and extends through the three months after.  Enrollment during this time ensures coverage without penalty.

Understanding the IEP

The IEP for Medicare is a seven-month timeframe surrounding the month you turn 65.  Should your birthday fall on the first of the month, the IEP begins one month earlier.  Those already receiving Social Security or Railroad Retirement Board benefits will be enrolled automatically.  For most people, unless you have other creditable coverage, Medicare Part A and Part B enrollment must occur during this window to avoid late enrollment penalties.

Timing Your Enrollment

Enrolling at the right time is imperative to ensure your coverage starts promptly.  Enrolling at any point in the three months leading up to your birthday month will activate Medicare Part B coverage on the first day of your birthday month.  If you enroll in the month of your birthday or in the three months that follow, the start date for Part B coverage varies.

Late Enrollment and Penalties

If you miss the Medicare Initial Enrollment Period, you risk incurring late enrollment penalties that can significantly increase the cost of your coverage.  But some circumstances could allow for exceptions that we’ll discuss further.

Understanding Late Enrollment

If you’re not eligible for premium-free Part A and choose not to enroll when you’re first eligible, you may face a penalty if you decide to enroll later. The cost is an additional 10% of your premium, and you’ll pay this higher premium for twice the number of years you were eligible but didn’t sign up.

Enrolling late into Medicare Part B could result in a permanent penalty.  For every year you’re not enrolled in Part B when you’re supposed to be, your monthly premiums will increase by 10%.  This increase is not temporary ─ it lasts for as long as you have Medicare ─ conceivably for LIFE!

For Medicare Part D, the penalty for late enrollment is calculated differently.  You’ll be charged an additional 1% of the “national base beneficiary premium” ($34.70 in 2024) for each month you were without prescription drug coverage.  This fee is then added to your Part D premium and, like the Part B penalty, is permanent.

Avoiding Late Enrollment Penalties

Regarding Part A, if you’re not eligible for premium-free coverage, consider enrolling during your Initial Enrollment Period to avoid the double-time 10% penalty on your premium if you choose to enroll later.

To prevent late enrollment penalties for Part B, make sure you sign up within your Initial Enrollment Period unless you have creditable coverage by an employer plan with 20 or more employees.  And if you missed this period without having creditable coverage, you’ll possibly need to wait for the General Election Period to enroll.

For Part D, you should enroll in a plan as soon as you’re eligible unless you have creditable prescription drug coverage from another source.  Missing your enrollment window without having such coverage means facing penalties added to your monthly premium.

Special Enrollment Period

When continuing employment beyond 65 years of age or being covered under a spouse’s employer health plan, the need to sign up for Medicare at 65 may not apply.  This scenario opens up the possibility of a Special Enrollment Period (SEP) to seamlessly transition into Medicare coverage.

Upon retirement or loss of eligible employer-sponsored health insurance, SEP allows an 8-month window to sign up for Medicare Part B.  This time frame is designed to minimize potential gaps in your health insurance coverage.

On the other hand, the timeline for Part D Prescription Drug Plan enrollment is much shorter. You only have a strict 63-day period to sign up following the end of your employer coverage.  Delaying past this time could result in penalties or having to wait for another enrollment period to join a Part D plan.

To be eligible for a SEP, an individual must comply with certain requirements.  You’ll need an Employer Coverage Form (CMS L564), completed by your current employer, as proof of your creditable coverage since you reached 65.  If you’ve been covered by multiple employer plans, each employer needs to provide a form.  Submitting the CMS L564 Form with your Medicare Part B application facilitates the initiation of your SEP and guarantees the waiving of late penalties.

General Enrollment Period

If you miss your Initial Enrollment Period and are not eligible for a Special Enrollment Period, the General Enrollment Period (GEP) serves as an opportunity to sign up for Medicare.  This period runs annually from JANUARY 1st to MARCH 31st.  During the GEP, you can enroll in Medicare Part A and Part B, but it’s important to be aware of the consequences of late enrollment.


It’s also essential to realize that this General Enrollment Period only applies to Original Medicare.  Enrollment in Medicare Advantage (Part C) or Prescription Drug Plans (Part D) must wait until the Annual Election Period, from OCTOBER 15th to DECEMBER 7th every year.

Annual Election Period

The Annual Election Period (AEP) for Medicare is a critical time for evaluating and modifying your healthcare coverage.  This applies specifically to Medicare Advantage plan members and anyone with a Part D prescription drug plan.


Each year, the AEP spans from OCTOBER 15th to DECEMBER 7th.  This is when you have the opportunity to make important decisions about your Medicare Part C Advantage plan or Part D prescription drug plans.

  • For Prescription Drug Plans (Part D):
    • During AEP, you can enroll in a Part D plan if you haven’t already.
    • If you wish to change your existing Part D plan, now is the time to do so.
    • Dropping your Part D coverage is also possible without penalty, provided you have credible drug coverage from another source.

Keep in mind that any adjustments made during the AEP take effect on JANUARY 1st of the following year.  If your goal is to enroll, switch, or leave a Medicare Advantage or Part D plan, ensure these changes are made during the AEP to be effective for the upcoming year.

Medicare Supplement [Medigap] Open Enrollment

When you first enroll in Medicare Part B, a critical time frame begins for securing a Medicare Supplement plan, commonly known as Medigap.  You are granted a six-month period to choose any Medigap plan that interests you.  This window of opportunity is crucial as it permits enrollment without health screenings.

Key Points to Remember:

  • Commencement ─ The Medigap open enrollment period starts the month you’re enrolled in Medicare Part B.
  • Duration ─ This period extends for six months.
  • Guaranteed-Issue Right ─ During this time, you gain the guaranteed-issue right to join any Medigap plan, meaning that insurers cannot deny you coverage based on your health status.

Why This Matters ─ The enrollment period for a Medigap plan happens only once. If you miss this timeframe, you might not get another chance without health underwriting.  Subsequent applications for Medigap could be subjected to medical underwriting and could result in higher premiums or denial of coverage.

It’s imperative to act within this timeframe to ensure your healthcare needs are protected with the right Medigap coverage.  This singular enrollment period is designed to make the transition into Medicare smoother, providing peace of mind as you make this critical coverage decision.

Frequently Asked Questions

Navigating the Medicare signup process can be straightforward if you are aware of the key enrollment periods and conditions. Here, we answer common questions regarding the timing of Medicare registration.

If I’m employed and have health coverage, when is it advisable to sign up for Medicare Part B?

You should consider signing up for Medicare Part B during your Initial Enrollment Period, which starts three months before you turn 65 and ends three months after that birthday.  If you or your spouse is still working and you have employer health coverage, you may qualify for a Special Enrollment Period (SEP) to sign up for Part B without penalty.  The SEP is available any time you remain covered under the employer plan and up to eight months after the employment or coverage ends.

Can one defer enrolling in Medicare at age 65 if covered by a private insurance plan?

Yes, you can defer enrolling in Medicare Part B without penalty if you are covered under a group health plan based on your or your spouse’s current employment.  You’ll have an eight-month Special Enrollment Period to sign up for Part B starting the month after the employment ends or the coverage is terminated, whichever happens first.

In the case of existing Part A coverage, how does one enroll in Medicare Part B?

If you already have Medicare Part A and need to enroll in Part B, you should contact Social Security for enrollment instructions.  You can sign up for Part B during your Initial Enrollment Period, a Special Enrollment Period (if applicable), or during the General Enrollment Period which runs from JANUARY 1st to MARCH 31st each year if you missed your Initial Enrollment Period.

At what point should one enroll in Medicare Part D prescription coverage?

It’s best to enroll in Medicare Part D during your Initial Enrollment Period to avoid a late enrollment penalty unless you have credible prescription drug coverage from another source.  Alternatively, you must enroll within 63 days of losing creditable coverage.  Medicare Part D enrollment can also occur during the Annual Election Period from OCTOBER 15th to DECEMBER 7th each year.

Final Thoughts

Timing matters when enrolling in Medicare.  Getting it right ensures you receive comprehensive benefits without facing penalties.  Consult with your trusted, independent Medicare broker to help navigate the options and deadlines.  This kind of expertise can be invaluable.


Like any insurance program, Medicare involves complexities regarding its coverage options and costs.  I’m here to help you make informed choices that are aligned with your healthcare needs and financial circumstances.


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